THE EFFECT OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE (A STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA) BY NDIH AZUKA MARTINS MATRIC NO: 051003216 Being a Research Project Submitted to Distance Learning Institute, (Department Of Business Administration) University Of Lagos in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science Degree in Business Administration OCTOBER 2010 CERTIFICATION This research project titled The Effects of Training and Development on employees Performance by Ndih Azuka martins meets regulation governing the award of B. Sc. egree in Business Administration (Business Administration) of the University of Lagos, Akoka – yaba. Lagos ————————–Date ———————— Name of Supervisor ABSTRACT The purpose of this research study is to obtain the effects of Training and development on the employee’s performance with particular reference to United Bank for Africa Plc. In order to achieve this objective, sample 100 were randomly selected out of the total employees of 2060 covering both top management and senior management staff. The statistical technique used was Chi square method. Simple percentage ethod was used in analyzing the questionnaires, which was presented in tabular form. The findings are as following: 1. That Training and development bring about the needed growth for employees performance. 2. That Training and development have played an important role in the external growth of a number of leading organization It was concluded that: 1. That training and development lead to increase in employee’s performance and output, it was gathered that majority of the respondents were of the opinion that training and development will lead to high efficiency of the organization, profitability and expansion of the organization. . Despite the short run initial challenges associated with training and development, it brings about long term benefits to the organization. It is recommended that, with the immense benefits of the individual growth and corporate performance achieved through training and development, the procedure to a successful integration’s is filled with it, the issue of fair value of a successful integration’s is filled with obstacles. Training and Development have certain costs associated with it, the issue of training needs and style, procedures of training are problems face by training organization.
To cope with these problems, the following suggestions are recommended. 1. There is need for adequate planning for training and development 2. There should be a proper assessment of the Training NEEDS of any proposed training both immediate and remote before training should be embark on. 3. Development of employees should be based on some meaningful criteria like managerial talents, productivity, and business growth. DEDICATION This study is dedicated to the ALMIGHTY GOD the one who propelled me and gave me the energy to embark on this study.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I give God all the glory for making this a reality; I give him all the thanks for been my inspiration, the creator of heaven and heart, the king of kings and the unchangeable changer. I adore you for bringing this programme to history and for helping achieve my aim of finishing this programme as planned. No one can be compared to you. I thank my supervisor Mrs U. O. Lamikari for been so patient and understanding, also for the advice and guidance given when needed to bring this research to a successful end.
My gratitude and appreciation also goes to our course adviser and other lecturers in the department for preparing us up to this level. I am indeed grateful to them all. I also acknowledge the authors whose books are consulted. This acknowledgement will be incomplete without saying a big thanks to my Lovely sisters Mrs. Ijeoma Dijee and Miss Ndih Helen for assisting to pay my fees in my final year in school. My profound gratitude goes to Prince Benson Akindele, my god-father, for all his moral support and assistance for not giving up on me and for teaching me the importance of education, I humbly appreciate.
Finally, I want to thank my family and friends who have supported me one way or the other during my studies. THANK YOU ALL AND GOD BLESS 20th of October 2010 Ndih Azuka Martins CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The recent global economic recession heralded diverse experience across businesses. It was a threatening period that led to unexpected changes for many careers, businesses, organization as well as individuals. To some, the experience provided the opportunity for creative thinking and new development. As we navigate through the troubled water of recovery, business leaders and professionals have engaged diverse strategies.
Some organizations displayed a high level of business intelligence, leveraging on the intellectual commitment of their staff to stay afloat. Nevertheless, the rate of talents and careers that were drowned by the economic recession was quit much due to unbalanced acquisition of new skills, training and development. It is not a fallacy to say that training constitute the core of staff productivity in any organization. In organization, whether public or private concern, it is the staff that plays critical role in helping organization, groups or society to achieve their stated goals and objective.
Hence, to accomplish this purpose, training and development need be adopted to have an optimal high productivity on staff performance. Organizational performance depends on how employees are being trained and motivated. No organization can triumph in the race of economic recession, and business uncertainty because our world is currently under going rapid changes particular in the area of skill obsolesce and technological capability; training is not exclusively reserve for newly employed staff but also for the old employees as well. Commercial banks just like any other organization in Nigeria strive to chieve optimum efficiency in their human resources management, thus devote a large chunk of their substantial capital to training and development. This becomes more imperative with successful completion of Mergers, Acquisition and it attendant increase in capitalization witnessed of recent in the Nigeria Baking industry which necessitated increase in attention of training and development. 1. 1BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Training and development programmes foster the initiative and creativity of employee and help to prevent manpower obsolesce which may be due to age, temperament or motivation or the inability of a person to change.
Simbo A. Banjoko (2002). An organization that is growth conscious must take training as an important aspect of its task. It is pertinent to note that human resources have the highest elect orating rate and should be in energy of an organization so as to receive the desired result as they are the cornerstones of any organization. While training is concerned with increasing knowledge and skill in claying a particular job, development aims at availing to the skills of the worker and improving their general knowledge and altering their attitude.
This project shall aim at how training and development can bring about efficiency in achieving organizational objective in United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc. After merger and acquisition in the Nigeria commercial sector, training and development of new and old employee enable the employee to have necessary skills and be able to perform more and attain organization goals. Increase in labour turnover provides gaps, which have to be filled with employees. These new employees come from different companies with different skills.
These employees have to be trained and be retrained so as to be able to achieve the objective of the organization. Training and Development of human resources in the banking industry is mostly costly through on – the job or off – the job training. Banking industry are service providers and has been aptly described as the “lubricant of the engine of growth that drives the economy”. People are employed to work in various sections cum departments and they deal with all aspects of banking activities.
Bank employees possess different degrees and certificate, yet in spite of this, there is need to train and develop them on banking operating techniques in order for them (employee) to be able to perform a more responsible and tasking duties through training and staff development, banks are able to save and improve current performance and provide a suitable trained staff to meet present and future challenges. 1. 2STATEMENT OF PROBLEM With the recent recapitalization embarked on by the banks, the problem of declining productivity, low esteem and lack of requisite skill of bank employee have continue to confront the banking industry.
There is the possibility of the industry facing shortage of highly skilled manpower in the further as a result of the growth and expansion of most banks in the country. Even though various researchers have shown that training and development has considerable impact, there is little empirical evidence to show the relationship between training and development and staff performance. This brings us to the question of why training is not impacted on staff performance in other word why training programme fail to meets its objective of improving staff performance in some instances This may be due to the following reasons: a.
Faulty training technique which ignore the peculiarities of each organization culture b. Inability of staff to imbibe and / or remember what is being learnt in training thereby failing to apply such knowledge to it. c. Wrong attitude of staff towards training 1. 3SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Training in an organization is veritable no matter how well qualified for a job, training is required to bring out the best in such individual in order to bring out the desired result. Thus the relevance of this study is aimed at showing the importance of training and development in achieving organizational objectives in the banking industry.
The study will also be useful to scholars in the field of social science, management and other related field as secondary source. 1. 4OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The aim of this project is to show how training and development have helped in improving employee’s performance toward enhancing a better productivity level in the banking sector. The study shall aim at the following: 1. To show the outstanding features of what training and development entails and how it can effectively be carried out in organization. 2. To give a detailed account of the advantage and disadvantages of training and development in the growth of any organization. . To create awareness of the fundamentals or principle of training in an organization 4. To appraise the effectiveness of training and development programme on the banking industry, while cognizance of how it has help in motivating workers in their place of work, using UBA as a study. 5. To determine the extent to which training and development of human resources motivate workers toward achieving organizational goals 6. To examine the impact of training and development programme on the overall goals of the organization. 7.
And lastly, the study shall highlight some of the basic flaws and problems that are implemented to effective training and development in the United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc and proffer recommendations to the management of the bank based on findings. 1. 5RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS In the light of the above objectives enumerated above, some hypothesis will be drawn up which the study shall pronounce answer to the hypothesis for this study are: Hi:That there is significance correlation between Training and Development on the performance of worker on the job.
Ho:That there is no significant correlation between Training and Development on the performance of workers on the job Hi:That Training lead to high optimum productivity Ho:That training does not lead to high optimum productivity. 1. 6RESEARCH QUESTION 1. Is there any significant relationship that exists between training of staff and organization performance? 2. Does training lead to high optimum productivity? 3. Does training lead to improvement on the side of the trained staff and wages receive thereafter? 4. Is there any significant different among training, job satisfaction and organizational performance? 5. Is there any ignificant relationship between staff productivity and organization performance? 1. 7PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The study intends to examine the extent to which training development function of banks has been carried out in order to achieve organization goals. The study will be centered on the workers of UBA PLC with aim of examining the effect of training and development of the employees’ performance. The availability of funds, time constraints, and distance e. t. c shall serve as limitation to the study. Also the study shall not examine the cost effectiveness of the method of training or the best. 1. 8PLAN OF THE STUDY
This research will attempt to study the impact of training and development on staff performance in the Nigerian commercial bank using UBA PLC as a study. The research study will be divided in 5 (five) chapter Chapter one will deal with background of the study, statement of the problem, significance of the study, it shall also discuss brief research hypothesis, Methodology of research, scope and limitation of the study and lastly plan of the study. Chapter two will cover a detailed review of current and existing literature; examine works of various authorities’ theorist and writers who have undertaken research studies into the theme.
Also it shall examine differences between development, objective of training and developments, training need analysis, method of training and evaluation of training programme. Lastly the chapter will discuss training and development in Nigerian Banking Industry, Training and development as being practice in UBA PLC Chapter three will deal with research methodology, source of data, sampling technique, re-instatement of hypothesis, method of data analysis and questionnaire that will be design to answer hypothesis question. Chapter four will deal with data presentation and interpretation
Chapter five will summarize the general study 1. 9OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS The definition of key terms used in this study is very important. This is to enable the researcher to produce a good conceptual framework of the study. i. Development: This is a process whereby organization may be become effective overtime at achieving its goal and objective for greater change ii. Organization: It is the conscious coordinated social unit compose of two or more people, functioning on a relatively continues basis to achieve set target. iii.
Performance: This is described as the activity carried out by the employee towards the achievement of the organization goal. iv. Organizational Development: These is the process which an organization develop an internal capacity to be the most effective it can be in its mission work and to sustain itself over the long term performance REFERENCES Adebayo D. O. (2000) Motivational Antecedent of training and outcome among Commercial banks workers on staff development. PHD thesis, University of Ibadan Simbo A. B. (2002) Human Resource Management, University of Lagos Educational publisher CHAPTER TWO . 1LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this chapter is to discuss training and development with reference to some relevant literature. Emphasis will be on training and development in Nigerian Banking Industry. Also differences between training and development, objectives of training and development, determine the needs of training will also be study more importantly, the nature of training and development in the United Bank for Africa (UBA) plc will be examined. 2. 2TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT It is perhaps not a fallacy to say that training constitutes the core of human resources management.
An organization generally assign certain tasks to employees, the extent to which these employees are prepared to carry out such tasks will determine whether such employees will make a success out of the task they have been given to carry out. When employees are properly trained, they are in position to achieve concrete result for the organization. Training begins first with a prelude called the induction process. Here the employee will be taken around the various departments in the organization and introduced to people, machine and materials with which he will work with.
Similarly, there is a general introduction to the organization policies. It is important to note what people have said about training and development. According to Obisi (2006) “Training is a process or procedure through which the skills, talent and knowledge of an employee is enhanced and increased. He further stated that training and development aims at developing competence such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organizational growth”. Fashoyin O. 2006) says that training and development ensures that the human resources of an organization and the skills and knowledge required in carrying out the various task of the organization. Nwachukwu F. (1999) stressed that training and development of employees is very necessary to increase the productivity of an organization. He went further on to say that: “……… employee productivity is a function of ability, will and situation factors An organization may have employee’s ability and determination. With appropriate equipment and managerial support yet productivity Falls bellow standards.
The missing factor in many cases is the lack of adequate skill and Knowledge, which are required through training and development”. In agreement with the above assertion, Lawal O. (2003) is of the opinion that “once” employees are selected, they must be trained and their skills developed. The same process is true for those already on the job. The scope of training and development activities in organization depend on the policy and development activities of an organizations policy and strategy. It is however important to know that training is not something that is done to new employees.
It is used continuously in well-run organization. Every time you get someone to do the work the way you want it done, you are training. Every time you give direction or discuss a procedure, you are training. Sola Aina (1992) is of the opinion that before employees can perform their job satisfactorily, they must master the special technology used by their enterprises. This entails acquisition of knowledge and skills. When sometime this acquisition is needed the employee is new to the organization; sometimes it’s needed because the organization changes its technology.
At other times, its is necessary if an individual is to change places within the organization either by lateral transfer or by promotion. Training is seen as the acquisition of new technology, which permits employees to perform according to optimum standard. Thus, training is defined as an experience, a discipline or a systematic action which causes people to acquire new skills, knowledge and pre-determine behavior. It is the responsibility of an organization to ensure that people at all levels in the organization are stimulated to learning.
Accordingly Koontz and Darnell (1976) are of the opinion that training and development must involve managers at all levels. Training is not just for a selected few “crown princess and princesses” nor is training only for those at lower levels. Top management may recognize the training needs of first line supervisor but the top managers should be their optimum priority, To provide an example of the commitment to the continuing development of all people in the enterprise. Training and development should be seen in this light as an integral part of any organization.
It is not a choice of whether to train or not but what can be a matter of choice is the method employed in training. Every organization must know that for them to achieve high productivity, there is need for training so that both the organization and the employee can grow simultaneously. The organization will boost of competent staff by training its employees who will be performers and achievers. According to Famora, A. (2044) in this regard, “Employees who have not received adequate training before being assigned with responsibilities lack the necessary confidence with which to carry out the job”. . DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training and development are two interrelated process whose importance cannot be over-emphasized in any discussion of strategic human resources management. The two processes related to the series of activities which an enterprise would need to embark upon to improve its managerial capacity. However, one is tempted to think that training and development mean the same thing and should not see any similarities between the two words, The differences are so glaring. Lawal (1993) opines that training, education and development are often used interchangeably.
However, there is the need to make distinctions among them. He says: Training is concerned with the increasing knowledge and skill in doing a particular job. Training is narrower in conception than education or development and the major burden of training falls upon the organization in which the job is located. Development on the other hand is a long term and more embracing programme that is to meet anticipated changes and not the need of an organization as a whole. It aims at adding to the skills of workers, improving their attitude.
For instance, it is possible to train a worker on how to operate a computer. However, an attempt to train workers on how to demonstrate judgment responsibility and empathy in dealing with people may be difficult because the skills develop over time with experience that may occur accidentally or as part of a planned programme. According to Cambell (1971), training is designed for a short term, stated purpose like the operation of some pieces of machinery, while development involves a broader education for long term processes.
Cambell further classified the differences between training and development into four categories: what, who, why and when as explain below. 1. “What” is learned under training is technical and mechanical skills and talents, while under development ‘what’ is learned is theoretical and conceptual ideas. 2. “Who” is learning under training is a non-managerial personnel. While development, the managerial personnel is learning. 3. “Why” such training takes place under specific job relate purpose. Under development, the purpose is for general knowledge. . “When” such learning occurs under training for short period of time, it is for a long period of time under development. Obisi (2006), describe training as a short term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose. Development on the other hand is a long term educational process utilizing a systematic and organized prefecture by which managerial personnel learn conceptual and theoretical knowledge for general purpose.
Koontz and O’Donnell (1976) believe that “to be result oriented, the management process approach to training concern the provision of opportunities for enterprises manager to become conversant with the principles, concepts and techniques which will be useful in improving their efficiency and effectiveness. On the other hand, they believe that “management development concerns the means by which a person cultivates those skills whose application will improve the efficiency and effectiveness with which the anticipated result of a particular organization segment is achieved”.
Management development as defined by Beach (1998) as the systematic process of training and growth by which employees gain and apply knowledge skill, insight and attitudes to manage work effectively. He said that development is usually for managers and that managers develop not only participating in formal courses of instruction but also through actual job experience in a work environment. Ubeku (2006) said that while training is concerned with impacting specific skills for the purpose of development and its concerned with enhancing the intellectual psychological? ocial and physical being of the individual. According to him, the work of the manager is not known to be routine and also by developing the manager, he will have a well developed mind with all kinds of management situations. Furthermore, Ayida (1995) consider that a “manager must see himself as part of total operation and his success will depend largely on how well he understands the vital principal that goals of his unit must be integrated with those of the organization.
Therefore, development of managers must take two aspect into consideration, first the individual must be professionally competent in his discipline and secondly, he must be able to manage man and money, material and situation. 2. 4OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT The purpose of training is to give employees at all levels sufficient instruction and guidance to enable them to perform their jobs effectively and prepare them for higher responsibilities.
The need for training exist where there is gap between standard of performance demanded by a department and by the individual. The objective of training is to close this gap. Koontz and Donnell (1976) are of the opinion that the more precisely the training objectives are stated, the more likely the chance of achieving them. The analysis of training needs is the basis for training objectives, which give direction to development and facilitate the measurement of the effectiveness of training efforts
The concern that the purpose of training is to achieve enterprises objective and develop professional managers, unfortunately there is often little relationship between training activities Obisi (2006) Says: “Training is a continuous activity to keep employees in good shape so as to be able to carry out assigned tasks. Training and development allows for high performance of the employee. When employees are trained, he knows what to do and so he is focus on how to display those skills which he has to learn, which brings the best out in an employee.
According to Harry Levinson (1989) the purpose of training are viz; 1. To improve the quality of output. 2. To lower the cost of waste and equipment maintenance 3. To lower the number of accidents 4. To lower turnover and absenteeism and increase employees job satisfaction since training can improve the employees self esteem 5. To prevent employee obsolescence He further stated that training helps the organization becomes more efficient and effective and the employee to develop and become more satisfied.
Also Leslie Ray (1986) added that training is high in funding and in terms of time and other resources but that the cost of not training may be disastrous. Training according to her should be seen as a management tool to be used judiciously and the knowledge acquired should be applied in business No doubt training and development aim at achieving the best results in both the employee and the organization as less supervision is done, greater commitment and dedication occur thus bridging the gap between existing performance ability and the desire performance .
This is why Cunning N. M. (1987) affirmed that training and development create an open, problem-solving climate through out the organization. It also helps to develop a reward system which recognizes both the achievement of the organizational mission (profit and service) and organization development. 5. TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS If business needs are identified, training can be planned and carried out to satisfy those needs. In order to identify needs and prepare a training plan, training needs analysis (TNA) must be undertaken. Training needs analysis is defined as:
An examination of the organization present and expected operations and the manpower necessary to carry them out in order to identify the numbers and categories of staff needing to be trained or re-trained………. To reach the required standard of performance in his/her current or future job. Thus, before we design appropriate training programmes, we must identify the training needs. A training need exists when the gap between actual and required performance is most economically met by a training intervention. As all organization work within economic constraints the above definition seems reasonable.
While some organizations may be prepared to spend more on training than others for a similar activity, the monetary criteria may act as a regulation regardless of the situation. It may be justified on economic ground that it is more effective to recruit people with necessary skills rather than train them. However team performance is likely to suffer as a result of less training, thus the organization should take the decision to train. Training need should be detected and identify at three levels, namely: a. The general or company level b.
The group or department level and c. The individual level The techniques for identifying the needs at various levels are different and are listed below Obisi (2006): The organization needs are: • Analysis of record and reports • Analysis of future trends and opportunities • Interim comparison • Management audits • Attitude surveys • The group/ department needs • Meeting of management teams • Group projects • Group creativity techniques • Behavioral modeling and analysis The individual needs: • Job analysis and description • Text and examinations • Questionnaires Interviewing • Observing • Diary methods • Management by objective • Performance appraisal • Self assessment • Career planning • Assessment centers 2. 6METHOD OF TRAINING There are three methods of training employees by the trainers, namely a. On-the-job training method b. Off-the-job training method c. External training involves techniques such as demonstration, coaching, mentoring job rotation/planned experience. Banjoko O. (2002) On-the-job method according to Glueck (1988) is probably the most widely used and abused method of training (formal or informal).
It is direct and trainee is actively engaged. Here the employee is placed into the real work situation and shown the job, and the tricks of the trade by an experienced worker or supervisor. This method could therefore be organized as learning by doing whereby skills needs for the efficient performance of duties are impacted. Robinson (1985) highlighted the merits of this method to include unhindered output as both working and learning take place simultaneously making it to be beneficial to both the organization and the workers.
Also the employee is able to learn as faster as a result of the practically of the teaching. However, Humblin (1977) believe that the method is not without demerit such as: i. Risk of operating equipment and increase in scrap due to lack of experience. ii. Lack of time due to pressure of work iii. Psychological pressure on trainee due to exposure before experienced colleagues The off-the-job method involves technique such as action learning. Job (skill) instruction, question and answer, assignment projects, guided reading, computer-based training multi-media training etc.
The off-the-job Method can be conducted within the organization but in an area designated as training schools or vocational centers This method provides an opportunity in low-risk surroundings to study important problems in greater depth that would make it possible in the midst of work pressures and interruption; It also allows for broader acquisition of knowledge and skills. However, Humblin (1977) also highlighted the demerit to include: i. Cost of external facility ii. Generally more time consuming iii. Often involve traveling cost and inconveniences.
Micer (1992) however affirms that both on-the-job and off-the-job training are complimentary as it allows for versatility on the part of the employees towards the performance of various tasks and achievement of desired results. The third, (external training) method unlike the first two methods of training is totally externally to the organization. It is a source of training which takes place in classrooms, seminars. The techniques used are lecture, talk, discussion, case study, role playing, assertiveness training, distance learning etc.
This method has the advantage of providing for the development of managerial talents, leadership intuition, technical and social knowledge especially in areas where the course are of standard. Ideally, the mode of training provides knowledge which might be difficult to acquire within the organization and such knowledge should broaden the horizon of the participant. However, some disadvantages associate with this type of training are: a. The distinction and gap between theory and practice b. The possibility of such theoretical knowledge as provided by this method dissipating over time if they are not immediately put into practice. . EVALUATION OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES Training is an investment in human capital and like any other investment; there is always the need to evaluate the return on investment. Chartered Institute of Management (2004) defines evaluation as the most complimentary skill and can be done effectively only after knowledge is acquired, comprehended, applied and synthesized Obikoya (1996) established that the commonest reason for evaluation is to determine programme effectiveness so that future programme can be improved upon.
This in effect means that it involves obtaining information (feedback) on the effects of a training programme and assessing the value of training in the light of that information. Boydell (1976) pointed out that it may be difficult to obtain information on the total effect of training as it may be a bit complex. Therefore evaluation exercise must be with the total value of training activity of the organization not merely the achievement of its stated objectives. Evaluation can be however be conducted at the following three stages as enumerated below; i. Pre-training evaluation ii. Post- training evaluation and iii. Point evaluation . 8TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY Training in managerial skills received little direct attention during the early development of the country’s education system. This was so because according to Ajogu M. O. (1976) before Nigeria’s independence managerial and supervisory jobs were the exclusive preserve of the expatriate either in the private or public sector of the Nigerian economy. Consequently, the education and training of Nigerians in managerial and/or executive skills tended according to Ajogu to be the belated consequences of Nigerian policy of the 1960s on the training and development of workers.
This initial setback was more apparent in the banking industry which was dominated by foreign owned banks. There was no stiff competition for business and staff among the foreign owned banks. Ajogu M. (1997) However, with the advent of indigenous banks there was the need for recruitment of experienced workers. The first sets of Nigerian university degree holders to be employed in the bank were recruited in the 1960s. Before the establishment of training centers in Nigeria, some banks took t5he decision to send ten Nigerian oversea on attachment to home office of foreign banks.
Chartered Institute of Bankers (2002) The first banking institution to open a training center locally was Union Bank Plc in 1956. First Bank establish its local training center in 1960 while United Bank for Africa Plc which open its door for business in 1961, did not start a training center until 1975. In 1978 the defunct Savannah bank followed suit. Chartered Institute of Bankers (2002) Even though some banks prior to the consolidation era, did not deem it fit to establish their training center, this does not in any way suggest that training and development of their staff were totally neglected.
The banks that have training centers are known to train a few staff of other banks. Also there are some major training and professional bodies that help bank in their training efforts, such as: i. Financial Institution Training Center (FITC) ii. Chartered Institute of Bankers of Nigeria (CIBN) iii. Nigerian Institute of Management (NIM) Also involved in training of banks staff are institution of high learning (Universities and Polytechnics) private consultants, and organizations such as foreign professionals and associate of banks based oversees. 2. 9TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IN UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC (UBA)
United Bank for Africa Plc (UBA) was incorporated in Nigeria as a limited liability Company on February 23, 1961 under the Companies Ordinance cap 33 1922. The bank took over the assets and liability of the British and French Bank Limited, which carried banking business in Nigeria since 1949. Following the consolidation reforms introduce and driven by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) in 2004. UBA merged with Standard Trust Bank (STB) Plc on August 1st 2005 and also acquired Continental Trust Bank (CTB) Limited on December 31st, 2005. The banks shares are currently quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange, (NSE).
The post consolidated United Bank for Africa has emerged today as the biggest in Nigeria, with a total branch network growing tremendously to over 523 in 2009. From these branches, the bank ensure about a 278 percent growth in deposit mobilization, which ensure a 24 percent growth in earning generation which was also ensured a 135 percent growth in profitability. CBN report 2007 2. 10THE TRAINING PROGRAMMES OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA PLC (UBA) The training programme of UBA Plc is predicted on the banks consolidation strategy which emphasized human capital development.
In recognition of the fact that the availability of knowledge based work force is a veritable tool as of pursuing a recruitment policy that is skilled-mixed in character and nature. The injection of fresh entry- level graduates into the bank as well as executive recruitment is said to have been designed to rejuvenate its workforce. Apart from that, skills and knowledge upgrade were pursued vigorously during the year 2008. The aim was to equip staff to confront emerging challenges and stay ahead of the competition.
Thus the objective of training and development department located in Lagos is to provide effective training system to supply personnel with up to date competence and positive attitude that will enable them to cope with the present and future challenges and attain a competitive edge in the industry. In the light of this, the training needs of employees are divided into two broad categories: i. General courses ii. Specialized Courses 2. 10. 1GENERAL COURSES These are designed to be attended by all employers of the bank and it includes the following: a.
Induction programmes designed to introduce all new entrant irrespective of grade or discipline to operations, in general and it compose of the following. i. Code of conduct and business ethics in the banking industry with particular reference to UBA Plc. ii. Basic skills management iii. Total quality management b. Training and re-training programme exposes the workers to the latest technology technical education, audio visual communication, bank product packages and the strategic direction of UBA Plc. These are sub-divided into i. General Technical Banking operations ii.
Management and iii. Marketing 2. 10. 2SPECIALIZED COURSES These are designed in relation to the needs of the various strategic Business units SBUS and Strategic Resources Function SRF in the bank. Programmes in the course are technical for example, there are such courses, such as fraud detection, prevention and control; credit administration and Debt management; Advance banking Operation and branch management. 2. 10. 3STAGES OF TRAINING The training programme of UBA is divided into three stages in order to ensure continuous training and retraining viz: Lower management
SENIOR / MIDDLE MANAGEMENT TRAINING SENIOR / MIDDLE MANAGEMENT: Each management undertakes cadre specified training programme of the core and generic course which each employee is expected to attend. Also training programme is conducted through: i. In-house programme (on/off-the job training) ii. In – plant courses iii. External Courses (Local and Oversea) Appropriate evaluation of training are then conducted by the training and development department of the bank in collaboration with strategic business unit and strategic resource function unit, with the support of all the ranches network by this approach, training is integrated into the banks corporate planning process through the involvement of all functional units in the bank. 2. 10. 4SELECTION FOR TRAINING 1. In house course: Training programme for the year containing the core and generic and their duration are sent to all Head office, SBU’S, SRF’s Regional officer and all the branch network each of whom nominate participants according to its training need using the nomination forms. The training and development now places trainees on courses based on such of the nomination. 2.
External Courses: It is the duty of the training and development department of the bank to identify external course organize by reputable training institutions which are considered relevant to the needs and effective functioning of the various units in the bank. Nomination forms are sent to the various relevant units to select participants to attend such courses. Also the strategic business unit of the bank can identify specific needs for banks staff and ultimate training and development department, in order that resource persons can be obtained in house or for external consultants to organize such training.
Such training can take the form of either: 1. In-plant which entails inviting external consultants to train staff within the training and development. 2. External – in which case the nominated staff attend the course at a venue chosen by the external consultants which may be done locally or overseas. REFERENCES Ajogu M. O. (1976) Motivational Antecedent of training and outcomes among Commercial banks workers on staff development. PHD thesis Boydell A. (1976). et al (2003) Determinant of employee job satisfaction: An Empirical Text of a casual mode Human Relations vol. 46, No. 8, page 1007-1027 Cunning N. M. 1987) length of the service and promotions in union and Non- Union Work Group. Industrial and Labour Relations Review, Vol. 38, No. 3 page 408. 420 Chartered Institute (2006) List of registered Nigeria Banks of Banks of Nigeria 1996 edition. Glueck (1988) “The Business of retention” PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT. August publishing pp. 24-25 Hamblin (1977). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice 4th edition page 543-572. Koontz and Donnell (1976), Management by objective and Results in the public sector Micer (1962) Human Resources Management Obikoya O. (1996) Personnel and Management of People at work at Macmillan Publishing Co.
New York, 1996 Ubeku A. K (2004) Personnel Management in Nigeria. Ethiope Publishing Company Chartered Institute United Bank for Africa Annual Report (2006) CHAPTER THREE 3. 0RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter shall be devoted to the techniques through which data are collected and analyzed in order to provide answer to the research questions posed. i. e. what is the important of training on staff, test the research hypothesis that was earlier proposed. This chapter shall attempt to explain how the research objective would be met therefore it shall cover the sources of data (primary and secondary data).
Also the chapter shall discuss in detail the population sample and sampling techniques and limitation of methodology data analysis. 3. 1SOURCES OF DATA 3. 1. 1PRIMARY SOURCE The primary source of data collection is basically through questionnaire and oral interview through this method a direct observation of event and the performance of experiment can be obtained generally. Questionnaire will be given out to employees of UBA Plc in about four different branches and head office in Lagos Island.
Also oral interview shall be conducted with some members of staff including head of training and development, UBA Plc Lagos. Trainers and trainee currently undergoing training programme at the training school will be given an oral interview. The following method will be adopted in obtaining the data: i. Questionnaire Questionnaire consists of a set of questions designed to gather information and data for analysis. The response provided by respondents on the questionnaires are used to answer the research question which are then used to test for relevant hypothesis in this case.
The questionnaire will be divided into two parts: the first part shall provide answers to the respondent bio-data while the second part will provide answers to the research questions. Even though the responses of the respondent will be used for purpose of research are fraught with the following limitations. 1. Respondents might not be inhibited to respond freely to the questionnaire because of fear of their supervisors. 2. Vital pieces of information might not be disclosed by respondent, if such information borders on confidentiality. 3. The respondent might not represent the population mentioned in the sampling size. i. Oral Interview: In addition to questionnaires, oral interview will be conducted with trainers, training coordinators, head of training and development department, administrative officers, and other supporting staff at the head office. Questions which could not be answered through the use of questionnaires will be prepared for the purpose of the study. 3. 1. 2Secondary Sources: This will involve collection of data obtained from relevant literature on training and development and data from the training and development department of UBA Plc.
Also journals and such documents as annual report of the bank gathered over five year period (2003-2008) will be examined. 3. 2RE-INSTATEMENT OF RESEARCH QUESTION 1. Is there any significant relationship that exists between training of staff and organization performance? 2. Does training lead to high optimum productivity? 3. Does training lead to improvement on the side of the trained staff and wages receive thereafter? 4. Is there any significant different among training, job satisfaction and organizational performance? 5. Is there any significant relationship between staff productivity and organization performance 3. RE-INSTATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS Hi:That there is significance correlation between training and development on the performance of worker on the job. Ho:That there is no significant correlation between training and development on the performance of workers on the job Hi:That training lead to high optimum productivity Ho:That training does not lead to high optimum productivity. 3. 4POPULATION SAMPLING The population sample was taken from four different branches and head office of UBA which are UBA university of Lagos branch, UBA Oba Akran, UBA Allen Avenue and head office Lagos Island.
SAMPLING DESIGN AND PROCEDURES Sampling design used was a single random sampling. A total of fifty copies of the questionnaire were randomly distributed to selected member of staff. 3. 5LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Greater part of the study works has a lot of limitation or constraint encounter during the research study. Funding was one of the constraint mentioned, adequate and up to date piece of information were gathered for research work, which will be used to offer possible solution to training principle and manpower development problems particularly, and organization in general 3. 5RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The major instrument used for generating the required data was the questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed with questions relating to training and development. The questionnaire is divided into two sections, section one comprise questions relating to the biographical data of the respondent such as age, sex, marital status, educational background, while the second section comprised of research statements formulated in line with the research questions and the hypotheses which were already formulated. The specific version was rating scale started from strongly agree (S/A) to strongly disagree (S/D) at the other extreme.
In all one hundred (100) questionnaires were distributed. REFERNCES Adedayo A. O. (1998) Understanding Statistics Esan E. O. & Okafor R. O. (1995) Basic statistics Method Ihemeje J. (2002) Research Methodology and statistical forecasting PP. 39-50, Rubboni Publisher Nigeria revised edition. CHAPTER FOUR 4. 1PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA This chapter aims at analyzing and interpreting the data collected for this research in this section and laid emphasis on the question that are relevant to the objectives of the study and formulated hypotheses.
The questionnaire used in this study contains Fourteen (13) relevant questions relating to the study, the specific version was the rating scale started from Strong Agree (S/A) on one hand to Strongly Disagree (S/D) on the other extreme. The description of the mathematical and statistical techniques was used. 4. 2ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE RATE The questionnaire was distributed among the Top Management Staff and Senior Staff of United Bank for Africa, One hundred (100) copies were distributed and the whole copies were returned. SECTION A: ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENTS CHARACTERISTICS
TABLE 4. 2. 1: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY SEX |Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Male |52 |52 | |Female |48 |48 | |TOTAL |100 |100 |
Source: field Survey 2010 The above table shows that 52 respondents representing 52% of the sample were male while 48 respondents representing 48% of the sample were female. This shows that majority of the respondents were male. TABLE 4. 2. 2: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY AGE |Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |18-25 Years |23 |23 | |26-35 Years |24 24 | |36-45 Years |25 |25 | |45 and above |28 |28 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010
It was estimated from the above that 23 respondents representing 23% of the sample were within the range of 18 – 25 years, 24 respondents representing 24% of the sample were within the range of 26 – 35 years, 25 respondents representing 25% of the sample were within the range of 36 – 45 years, 28 respondents representing 28% of the sample were 45 years and above. TABLE 4. 2. 3: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY STATUS Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Single |44 |44 | |Married |56 |56 | |Divorced |- |- | |TOTAL |100 |100 |
Source: field Survey 2010 The table above shows that 44 respondents representing 44% of the sample were single, 56 respondents representing 56% of the sample was married while there are no divorcees. Therefore, 44% and 56% of the sample represent the marital status respectively. TABLE 4. 2. 4:DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY LEVELS IN THE ORGANIZATION. Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Top Management Staff |48 |48 | |Senior Staff |52 |52 | |TOTAL |100 |100 |
Source: field Survey 2010 From the above table, 48 respondents representing 48% of the sample were top management staff, 52 respondents representing 52% of the sample were senior staff. Thus, 48% and 52% of the sample were representing the two classes of levels in the organization respectively. TABLE 4. 2. 5: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION |Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |M.
SC/MBA |49 |49 | |HND/B. SC. |51 |51 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 The above table indicates that 49 respondents representing 49% of the sample have either M. SC. or MBA, while 51 respondents representing 51% of the sample have HND or B. SC. TABLE 4. 2. : DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY LENGTH OF SERVICE |Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |1 – 5 Years |21 |21 | |6-10 Years |17 |17 | |11-15 Years |18 |18 | |16- years and above |44 |44 | |TOTAL 100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 From the table above, 21 respondents representing 21% of the sample were within 1-5 years length of service, 17 respondents representing 17% of the sample were within 6-10 years length of service, 18 respondents representing 18% of the sample were also within 11-15 years length of service while 44 respondents representing 44% of the sample has spent 16 years and above. This analysis implies that majority of the respondents have spent 16 years and above in the service. TABLE 4. 2. : DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY YEARS IN PRESENT POSITION |Description |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |1-2 Years |31 |31 | |2-5 Years |41 |41 | |5 Years and above |28 |28 | |TOTAL |100 |100 |
Source: field Survey 2010 The table indicates that 31 respondents representing 31% of the sample have been in their present position within 1-2 years, 41 respondents representing 41 of the sample were within 2-5 years, and 28 respondents representing 28% of the sample were 5 years and above. SECTION B 4. 3:ANALYSIS OF INDIVIDUAL RESEARCH STATEMENTS Statement 1: There is significant relationship that exists between training of staff and organization performance. TABLE 4. 3. 1: |Responses |Frequency Percentage (%) | |Strong Agree |31 |31 | |Agree |27 |27 | |Undecided |14 |14 | |Disagree |14 |14 | |Strongly Disagree |14 |14 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 From the above table, 31 respondents representing 31% of the sample were Strongly Agree, 27 respondents representing 27% of the sample agreed, 14 respondents representing 14% each of the sample were undecided, disagree and strongly disagree. This implies that there is significant relationship that exists between training of staff and organization performance. STATEMENT 2:Training lead to high optimum productivity TABLE 4. 3. 2: Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strong Agree |34 |34 | |Agree |28 |28 | |Undecided |13 |13 | |Disagree |12 |12 | |Strongly Disagree |13 |13 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 The table above shows that 34 respondents representing 34% of the sample strongly agree, 28 respondents representing 28% of the sample agreed, 13 respondent representing 13% of the sample was undecided, 12 respondents representing 12% of the sample disagree while 13 respondents representing 13% strongly disagree. This implies that Training lead to high optimum productivity. STATEMENT 3: The impact of training affects the morals of employee’s performance. TABLE 4. 3. 3: Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strong Agree |35 |35 | |Agree |25 |25 | |Undecided |13 |13 | |Disagree |14 |14 | |Strongly Disagree |13 |13 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010
In the above table, 35 respondents representing 35% of the sample strongly agree, 25 respondents representing 25% of the sample agree, 13 respondent representing 13% of the sample was undecided, 14 respondents representing 14% of the sample disagree, while 13 respondent representing 13% of the sample strongly disagree. These shows that majority of the respondents agreed that the impact of training affects the morals of employee’s performance. STATEMENT 4: The objectives of the United Bank for Africa towards training of their employees are of paramount priority. TABLE 4. 3. 4: |Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strong Agree |31 |31 |Agree |31 |31 | |Undecided |10 |10 | |Disagree |12 |12 | |Strongly Disagree |16 |16 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 From the above table, 31 respondents strongly agree representing 31% of the sample, 31 respondents agree representing 31% of the sample, 10 respondents undecided representing 10% of the sample, 12 respondents disagree representing 12% of the sample, while 16 respondents representing 16% strongly disagree. This means that the objectives of the United Bank for Africa towards training of their employees are of paramount priority. STATEMENT 5:There is significant relationship between employee’s productivity and staff Productivity TABLE 4. 3. 5: Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strong Agree |25 |25 | |Agree |21 |21 | |Undecided |19 |19 | |Disagree |19 |19 | |Strongly Disagree |19 |19 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010 From the above table, 25 respondents strongly agree representing 25% of the sample, 21 respondents agree representing 21% of the sample, 19 respondents were undecided, disagree and strongly disagree representing 19. It was deduced that the respondents agreed that there is significant relationship between employee’s productivity and staff Productivity STATEMENT 6: Training leads to promotion. Table 4. 3. 6 Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly Agree |32 |32 | |Agree |25 |25 | |Undecided |13 |13 | |Disagree |14 |14 | |Strongly Disagree |14 |14 | |TOTAL |100 |100 | Source: field Survey 2010
In the above table, 32 respondents strongly agree representing 32% of the sample, 25 respondents agree representing 25% of the sample, 13 respondent was undecided representing 13% of the sample while 14 respondents disagree and strongly disagree representing 14% each of the sample. This implies that Training leads to promotion. STATEMENT 7: Training lead to improvement on the side of the staff and wages receive thereafter. Table 4. 3. 7 |Responses |Frequency |Percentage (%) | |Strongly Agree |30 |30 | |Agree |27 |27 |Undecided |14 |14 | |Disagree