Introduction This paper aims to analyze the motivation techniques in Russia in the Soviet Era and today, where we can find great differences in society after the collapse of communism in 1991. In the first part some information is mentioned about Russia in the Soviet Era and nowadays. Thereafter we refer to the motivation techniques in both eras and how successful they are according to work ethics in each period. The results of this research are pointed out in the conclusion. General information The U. S. S. R was founded on 1922 and lasted until 1991 and had an extent of 22,402,200sq km and population of 250million residents.
The capital of U. S. S. R. was Moscow and it was consisted of Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The form of the government was Communist Dictatorship. The Russian Federation was founded in 1992. It covers an area of 16,377,742sq km and has a population of 138,739,892 residents. The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow and the form of the government is Federal Semi-presidential Republic. HRM policies under the strong Soviet ideology
As a state with a very strong communistic ideology under the totalitarian regime Soviet Union made people perform quite well, using instruments that could be only effective under such state. Idea of perfect communistic future was the main one. It means, that “everyone works according to his abilities and everyone gets according to his needs”. For Russian folk it primarily meant that everyone has to work hard to evaluate to a communist society. Soviet slogans of that time were: “one who doesn’t work neither shall eat”, “labour made a Man out of monkey”, “labour graces a person”.
It made people believe in necessity of working long hours, no matter what they gain for it. Against this background it was very prestigious to be the best worker. People who made from 3 to 5 times more job that normal were widely known and honored, but hardly supported with any material bonuses. It was common to make lists of the best workers of the week/month and present them on meetings or publish in newspapers. The most influential policy to involve people in work was obligatory employment of very person – unemployment was under the law and leads to imprisonment. That’s why the unemployment rate was almost zero. Compensation system was based on intensive payments, when all bonuses were divided across the organization in equal amounts. Workers received their money regardless of individual performance; people accepted their earnings as their due, but not as a reward for good performance. Does not work in a market economy. Historically, Russians are used to being provided with good lunches by their company as well as free holiday trips.
Medicine also was absolutely free and of pretty good quality. Personal initiatives were not only discouraged, but were even punished. Planned economics need most of the people not to think, but just to work hard Work Ethics In Soviet Union as a response on HRM practices For Russians, under the Soviet system, the government found a job for every graduate, so they didn’t worry about being hired. Because of high moral standards and total brainwashing most of Russians used to work well even in spite of bad pecuniary motivation.
More specifically they did their best with no willing to get more money but just for fulfilling the idea of communism. On the other hand, the idea for some people was to get away with as little work as possible, as there were no pay raises as well as there was no real threat of getting fired either. As a result, working hard just led to more work. Furthermore, for many women in the Soviet Union, the workplace was a place to gossip, sell each other clothes and exchange tips on where to get consumer goods.
People in Soviet Union used to say that “If they pretend they are paying us, we would pretend we are working” and “Work is not a wolf, it would not run away of you”. Those sayings express the lack of fear for losing their work as well as the work security that the government provides them. It is a fact that Russians are able to do a variety of things at one time and they are flexible about appointments. It is also worth to mention that long term relationships are really valuable for them. Motivation Techniques: Russian Federation
In modern Russia many of companies have no standardized compensation system, and are interested in how to set up systematic, equitable pay scales and incentive structures flexible enough to withstand periods of growth and change. Incentive pay is still used since many of the individuals are still grappling with the idea of individual performance incentives. Not only do such systems go against the traditional approach, but they may also contradict inherent aspects of the Russian culture, such as collectivism and high uncertainty avoidance. The use of fines plays considerable role of discipline systems.
It’s partly effective for Russian folk because it is motivating not to break rules, established by company. But sometimes these fines could be unfair. It’s common that employees could be fined for every conceivable infraction, while it doesn’t seem real to prove employer’s fault when it occurs. HR managers of Russian companies tend to provide some job security to their employees. Russian employees are more likely to suggest productivity improvements motivated to develop some special skills that are valued by company, since level of uncertainty is very high.
Most organizations perceived HR as a compliance function, existing to fill out forms and enforce rules, rather than a strategic part of organizational performance and success Most international firms performing in Russia provide health insurance and/or subsidize the lunches. While all Russians are entitled to national health insurance free of charge, the national health care system has long lines and many problems due to lack of funding. As a result, having private health insurance is greatly valued by employees. The hierarchical structure of the Russian society discourages individual responsibility.
Most of Russians are happy not to take any responsibility on their job, it makes hard for HR managers to motivate them to take some initiative. Influence of political statement and people’s values on HRM in Russia In modern Russia most people have a positive attitude to competition and they recognize the importance of hard work. What the Russian employees consider as important or not so important about work is: Important: Good salary (90%) Interesting job (65%) Pleasant colleagues (64%) Job security (62%) Not so important: Chances for promotion (22%) Meeting people (21%) Not much pressure (19%) Responsible job (18%)
The older generations generally have a responsible attitude to work and the majority of them are always willing to do their best independent of their salary. It is obvious that this is an influence of the past times. On the other hand, younger people regard the employment relationship as a contract under which they are prepared to work more if they receive more money. This tendency is alarming, for it means that the new generation does not widely believe in the importance of hard work. Moreover the percentage of those who think that competition is good, as it causes creativity, has been decreased, particularly for the higher ages.
Another interesting point is the fact that the majority of the employees consider that they have to obey to their supervisors. This is unexpected, taking into account the communist past of Russia. One obvious reason for this is that market conditions have brought much greater job insecurity and people are now afraid of losing their job. In addition to this, the percentage of Russians who think that incomes should be made more equal has increased after the collapse of communism in 1991 and the percentage of those who think that there should be larger income differences as incentives for individual effort has decreased.
This can be explained as a consequence of economic reform, income differences have become enormous and a great deal of the population lives in poverty, a situation which the majority of the population finds unacceptable. Last but not least, it is very common that more and more people the last few years believe that one can get rich only at the expense of others. Conclusion: HRM policies in USSR made more influence on the work productivity then in Russian Federation. Reasons are: * Ideological brainwashing * Respect of government Higher moral standards * Strict laws Communist period influenced greatly on modern values of Russian folk. That is why most up-to-date motivation techniques in Russia are still based on that old ideology. More freedom in the most areas of life is accompanied with new problems raised after USSR disintegration. Since things changed under market conditions Russian HRM tries to implement some modern techniques for a new generation, but it would take a long time to find out the most appropriate policies for a challenging world.