Enlightenment, freedom, and Political rights: creating a “just” society Hobbes: “life is nasty, brutish, and short… ” Pessimistic about humans fear of anarchy–bad for economics Ultimate power with strong ruler “Leviathan” John Locke: “Wherever law ends, tyranny begins. ” Rights: “life, liberty, and property… ” optimistic about humans IF equality and tolerance…. ultimate power with people Thomas Hobbe’s In Leviathan, Thomas Hobbe’s argued that ordinary people were incapable of governing themselves and should willingly submit to the sovereignty of a supreme ruler.
They carry out the ruler’s demands, and the ruler, in return, agrees to keep the peace. This type of political theory is know as Absolutism. Absolutism A term applied to strong centralized monarchies that exert royal power over their dominions, usually on the grounds of divine right. Leviathan Politics – Hobbes; All Equal > competition = war. Believes in a social contract, political absolutism, all surrender power to one. John Locke however disagreed with Thomas Hobbe’s, in his essay human understanding.
John Locke In the essay Human Understanding written by John Locke, he argued in opposition that humans are “by nature free, equal, and independent. ” The ruler in this case should have only limited authority. Locke believed that people are capable of governing themselves. This type of political theory is called Liberalism. Liberalism A political theory that argues that people are by nature free, equal, and independent and that they consent to government for protection but not by surrendering sovereignty to a ruler.
English philosopher Thomas Hobbes. In his book titled, “The Leviathan”, Hobbes establishes a political philosophy from the perspective of a social contract theory. According to Hobbes, society is a population beneath a sovereign authority, to whom all individuals in that society should surrender their natural rights for the sake of protection. The Leviathan politics believe in a social contract, political absolutism, and all surrender to one power,