Athletes foot is a very common skin condition. It is usually a scaly, red, itchy eruption and occasionally may be weepy and oozing it affects the sole of the foot and the skin between the toes. Although it is frequently caused by a fungal infection, other causes may be indistinguishable without proper testing.
The medical name for athletes foot caused by a fungus is tinea pedis. The fungi can be spread directly from person to person by contact or it can be contracted in many locations, including gyms, locker rooms, swimming pools, nail salons, airport security lines, and from contaminated socks and clothing. Most people acquire fungus on the feet from walking barefoot in areas where someone else with athletes foot has walked. Another colorful name for this condition is “jungle rot,” often used by members of the armed services serving in tropical climates. Some people are simply more prone to this condition while others seem relatively resistant to it.
However, without proper growing conditions such as a warm, moist environment, the fungus may not easily infect the skin. Up to 70% of the population may develop athletes foot at some time during their lives. An infection by athletes foot fungi does not produce any resistance to subsequent infections. In a summary Athletes foot is a common dermatitis of the webs of the toes and soles of the feet. When caused by a fungus, athletes foot may spread to the palm, groin, and body. Fungal infections of the feet are contagious and can be spread person to person or by walking on contaminated objects and floors. Athletes foot may cause foot itching, burning, pain, and a fungus causes scaling. When athlete??™s foot, it can be treated with antifungal medications, many of which are available over the counter. Keeping the feet dry by using cotton socks and breathable shoes can help prevent athletes foot. Although it is not life threatening in most cases it still is a very big nuisance.
Scoliosis is a disorder that causes an abnormal curve of the spine, or backbone. The spine has normal curves when looking from the side, but it should appear straight when looking from the front. Kyphosis is a curve seen from the side in which the spine is bent forward. There is a normal kyphosis in the middle (thoracic) spine. Lordosis is a curve seen from the side in which the spine is bent backward. There is a normal lordosis in the upper (cervical) spine and the lower (lumbar) spine. People with scoliosis develop additional curves to either side, and the bones of the spine twist on each other, forming a “C” or an “S” shape in the spine.
Scoliosis is about two times more common in girls than boys. It can be seen at any age, but it is most common in those over 10 years of age. Scoliosis is hereditary in that people with scoliosis are more likely to have children with scoliosis; however, there is no correlation between the severity of the curve from one generation to the next.
Scoliosis can affect about 2% of females and 0.5% of males. In most cases, the cause of scoliosis is unknown (idiopathic). This type of scoliosis is described based on the age when scoliosis develops. If the person is less than 3 years old, it is called infantile idiopathic scoliosis. Scoliosis that develops between 3 and 10 years of age is called juvenile idiopathic scoliosis, and people that are over 10 years old have adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. More than 80% of people with scoliosis have idiopathic scoliosis, and the majority of those are adolescent girls.
There are three other main types of scoliosis: Functional: In this type of scoliosis, the spine is normal, but an abnormal curve develops because of a problem somewhere else in the body. This could be caused by one leg being shorter than the other or by muscle spasms in the back.
Neuromuscular: In this type of scoliosis, there is a problem when the bones of the spine are formed. Either the bones of the spine fail to form completely or they fail to separate from each other during fetal development. This type of scoliosis develops in people with other disorders, including birth defects, muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, or Marfans disease. People with these conditions often develop a long C-shaped curve and have weak muscles that are unable to hold them up straight. If the curve is present at birth, it is called congenital. This type of scoliosis is often much more severe and needs more aggressive treatment than other forms of scoliosis.
Degenerative: Unlike the other forms of scoliosis that are found in children and teens, degenerative scoliosis occurs in older adults. It is caused by changes in the spine due to arthritis known as spondylosis. Weakening of the normal ligaments and other soft tissues of the spine combined with abnormal bone spurs can lead to an abnormal curvature of the spine. The spine can also be affected by osteoporosis, vertebral compression fractures, and disc degeneration.
Others: There are other potential causes of scoliosis, including spine tumors such as osteoid osteoma. This is a benign tumor that can occur in the spine and cause pain. The pain causes people to lean to the opposite side to reduce the amount of pressure applied to the tumor. This can lead to a spinal deformity. In a summary Scoliosis is an abnormal curve in the spine. There are several types of scoliosis based on the cause and age when the curve develops. Depending on the severity of the curve and the risk for it getting worse, scoliosis can be treated with observation, bracing, or surgery.
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